A 3-year-old girl is brought to your office by her mother because she has a fever and complains that her ear hurts. She has no significant medical history. The child is not pleased to be in the physician's office and has been crying. Her mother explains that she developed a cold about 3 days ago with sniffles. Her temperature is 37.8 degreesC (100 degreesF), and the rest of the physical examination is completed with some difficulty. The only abnormalities are slight redness of the throat. a nose full of thick green mucus, and injected tympanic membranes. You wonder what findings other than red tympanic membranes should lead you to diagnose otitis media and also consider the recent controversy about whether to treat acute otitis media (AOM) with antibiotics.