Whole genome analysis of Yersinia ruckeri isolated over 27 years in Australia and New Zealand reveals geographical endemism over multiple lineages and recent evolution under host selection

Barnes, Andrew C., Delamare-Deboutteville, Jerome, Gudkovs, Nicholas, Brosnahan, Cara, Morrison, Richard and Carson, Jeremy (2016) Whole genome analysis of Yersinia ruckeri isolated over 27 years in Australia and New Zealand reveals geographical endemism over multiple lineages and recent evolution under host selection. Microbial Genomics, 2 12: . doi:10.1099/mgen.0.000095

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Author Barnes, Andrew C.
Delamare-Deboutteville, Jerome
Gudkovs, Nicholas
Brosnahan, Cara
Morrison, Richard
Carson, Jeremy
Title Whole genome analysis of Yersinia ruckeri isolated over 27 years in Australia and New Zealand reveals geographical endemism over multiple lineages and recent evolution under host selection
Formatted title
Whole genome analysis of Yersinia ruckeri isolated over 27 years in Australia and New Zealand reveals geographical endemism over multiple lineages and recent evolution under host selection
Journal name Microbial Genomics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2057-5858
Publication date 2016-11-30
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1099/mgen.0.000095
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 2
Issue 12
Total pages 17
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher The Microbiology Society
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Yersinia ruckeri is a salmonid pathogen with widespread distribution in cool-temperate waters including Australia and New Zealand, two isolated environments with recently developed salmonid farming industries. Phylogenetic comparison of 58 isolates from Australia, New Zealand, USA, Chile, Finland and China based on non-recombinant core genome SNPs revealed multiple deep-branching lineages, with a most recent common ancestor estimated at 18 500 years BP (12 355–24 757 95% HPD) and evidence of Australasian endemism. Evolution within the Tasmanian Atlantic salmon serotype O1b lineage has been slow, with 63 SNPs describing the variance over 27 years. Isolates from the prevailing lineage are poorly/non-motile compared to a lineage pre-vaccination, introduced in 1997, which is highly motile but has not been isolated since from epizootics. A non-motile phenotype has arisen independently in Tasmania compared to Europe and USA through a frameshift in fliI, encoding the ATPase of the flagella cluster. We report for the first time lipopolysaccharide O-antigen serotype O2 isolates in Tasmania. This phenotype results from deletion of the O-antigen cluster and consequent loss of high-molecular-weight O-antigen. This phenomenon has occurred independently on three occasions on three continents (Australasia, North America and Asia) as O2 isolates from the USA, China and Tasmania share the O-antigen deletion but occupy distant lineages. Despite the European and North American origins of the Australasian salmonid stocks, the lineages of Y. ruckeri in Australia and New Zealand are distinct from those of the northern hemisphere, suggesting they are pre-existing ancient strains that have emerged and evolved with the introduction of susceptible hosts following European colonization.
Keyword Yersinia ruckeri
Aquaculture
Phylogeny
Flagella
Lipopolysaccharide
O-antigen
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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Created: Thu, 09 Mar 2017, 15:23:58 EST by Associate Professor Andrew Barnes on behalf of School of Biological Sciences