Tick holocyclotoxins trigger host paralysis by presynaptic inhibition

Chand, Kirat K., Lee, Kah Meng, Lavidis, Nickolas A., Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel, Ijaz, Hina, Koehbach, Johannes, Clark, Richard J., Lew-Tabor, Ala and Noakes, Peter G. (2016) Tick holocyclotoxins trigger host paralysis by presynaptic inhibition. Scientific Reports, 6 . doi:10.1038/srep29446

Author Chand, Kirat K.
Lee, Kah Meng
Lavidis, Nickolas A.
Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel
Ijaz, Hina
Koehbach, Johannes
Clark, Richard J.
Lew-Tabor, Ala
Noakes, Peter G.
Title Tick holocyclotoxins trigger host paralysis by presynaptic inhibition
Journal name Scientific Reports   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2045-2322
Publication date 2016-07-08
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1038/srep29446
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 6
Total pages 4
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Ticks are important vectors of pathogens and secreted neurotoxins with approximately 69 out of 692 tick species having the ability to induce severe toxicoses in their hosts. The Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is known to be one of the most virulent tick species producing a flaccid paralysis and fatalities caused by a family of neurotoxins known as holocyclotoxins (HTs). The paralysis mechanism of these toxins is temperature dependent and is thought to involve inhibition of acetylcholine levels at the neuromuscular junction. However, the target and mechanism of this inhibition remain uncharacterised. Here, we report that three members of the holocyclotoxin family; HT-1 (GenBank AY766147), HT-3 (GenBank KP096303) and HT-12 (GenBank KP963967) induce muscle paralysis by inhibiting the dependence of transmitter release on extracellular calcium. Previous study was conducted using extracts from tick salivary glands, while the present study is the first to use pure toxins from I. holocyclus. Our findings provide greater insight into the mechanisms by which these toxins act to induce paralysis.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation
School of Biomedical Sciences Publications
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