A detailed description of the anatomy of the cervical dorsal rami is provided on the basis of the past literature and independent studies on five cadavers. In particular, the anatomy of the upper cervical dorsal rami and the innervation of the cervical zygapophyseal joints are described. The clinical significance of the cervical dorsal rami is discussed in relation to headache, occipital neuralgia, and neck pain. The surgical anatomy of cervical facet denervation is discussed. The radiologic anatomy of the medial branches of the cervical dorsal rami is described, and target points suitable for diagnostic blocks or facet denervation are illustrated.