Sample enrichment for bioanalytical assessment of disinfected drinking water: concentrating the polar, the volatiles, and the unknowns

Stalter, Daniel, Peters, Leon I., O'Malley, Elissa, Tang, Janet Yat-Man, Revalor, Marion, Jose Farre, Maria, Watson, Kalinda, von Gunten, Urs and Escher, Beate I. (2016) Sample enrichment for bioanalytical assessment of disinfected drinking water: concentrating the polar, the volatiles, and the unknowns. Environmental Science and Technology, 50 12: 6495-6505. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b00712


Author Stalter, Daniel
Peters, Leon I.
O'Malley, Elissa
Tang, Janet Yat-Man
Revalor, Marion
Jose Farre, Maria
Watson, Kalinda
von Gunten, Urs
Escher, Beate I.
Title Sample enrichment for bioanalytical assessment of disinfected drinking water: concentrating the polar, the volatiles, and the unknowns
Journal name Environmental Science and Technology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1520-5851
0013-936X
Publication date 2016-06-21
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1021/acs.est.6b00712
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 50
Issue 12
Start page 6495
End page 6505
Total pages 11
Place of publication Washington, DC, United States
Publisher American Chemical Society
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Abstract Enrichment methods used in sample preparation for the bioanalytical assessment of disinfected drinking water result in the loss of volatile and hydrophilic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and hence likely tend to underestimate biological effects. We developed and evaluated methods that are compatible with bioassays, for extracting nonvolatile and volatile DBPs from chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water to minimize the loss of analytes. For nonvolatile DBPs, solid-phase extraction (SPE) with TELOS ENV as solid phase performed superior compared to ten other sorbents. SPE yielded >70% recovery of nonpurgeable adsorbable organic halogens (AOX). For volatile DBPs, cryogenic vacuum distillation performed unsatisfactorily. Purge and cold-trap with crushed ice serving as condensation nuclei achieved recoveries of 50-100% for trihalomethanes and haloacetonitriles and approximately 60-90% for purged AOX from tap water. We compared the purgeable versus the nonpurgeable fraction by combining purge-and-trap extraction with SPE. The purgeable DBP fraction enriched with the purge-and-trap method exerted a lower oxidative stress response in mammalian cells than the nonpurgeable DBPs enriched with SPE after purging, while contributions of both fractions to bacterial cytotoxicity was more variable. 37 quantified DBPs explained almost the entire AOX in the purge-and-trap extracts, but <16% in the SPE extracts demonstrating that the nonpurgeable fraction is dominated by unknown DBPs.
Keyword Disinfection byproducts (DBPs)
Bioanalytical assessment
Organic micropollutants
Water samples
Enrichment of samples
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
Advanced Water Management Centre Publications
 
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