Epstein–Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: potential opportunities for immunotherapy

Pender, Michael P. and Burrows, Scott R. (2014) Epstein–Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: potential opportunities for immunotherapy. Clinical and Translational Immunology, 3 . doi:10.1038/cti.2014.25


Author Pender, Michael P.
Burrows, Scott R.
Title Epstein–Barr virus and multiple sclerosis: potential opportunities for immunotherapy
Journal name Clinical and Translational Immunology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2050-0068
Publication date 2014-10-31
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1038/cti.2014.25
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 3
Total pages 11
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) causing progressive disability. Many observations implicate Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of MS, namely universal EBV seropositivity, high anti-EBV antibody levels, alterations in EBV-specific CD8+ T-cell immunity, increased spontaneous EBV-induced transformation of peripheral blood B cells, increased shedding of EBV from saliva and accumulation of EBV-infected B cells and plasma cells in the brain. Several mechanisms have been postulated to explain the role of EBV in the development of MS including cross-reactivity between EBV and CNS antigens, bystander damage to the CNS by EBV-specific CD8+ T cells, activation of innate immunity by EBV-encoded small RNA molecules in the CNS, expression of αB-crystallin in EBV-infected B cells leading to a CD4+ T-cell response against oligodendrocyte-derived αB-crystallin and EBV infection of autoreactive B cells, which produce pathogenic autoantibodies and provide costimulatory survival signals to autoreactive T cells in the CNS. The rapidly accumulating evidence for a pathogenic role of EBV in MS provides ground for optimism that it might be possible to prevent and cure MS by effectively controlling EBV infection through vaccination, antiviral drugs or treatment with EBV-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Adoptive immunotherapy with in vitro-expanded autologous EBV-specific CD8+ T cells directed against viral latent proteins was recently used to treat a patient with secondary progressive MS. Following the therapy, there was clinical improvement, decreased disease activity on magnetic resonance imaging and reduced intrathecal immunoglobulin production.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Article number e27

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collection: School of Medicine Publications
 
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Created: Tue, 19 Jul 2016, 16:07:57 EST by Andrew Heath on behalf of Learning and Research Services (UQ Library)