Review of the effects of non-point nutrient loading on coastal ecosystems

Bell P.R.F. (1993) Review of the effects of non-point nutrient loading on coastal ecosystems. Marine and Freshwater Research, 44 2: 261-283. doi:10.1071/MF9930261


Author Bell P.R.F.
Title Review of the effects of non-point nutrient loading on coastal ecosystems
Journal name Marine and Freshwater Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1323-1650
Publication date 1993
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1071/MF9930261
Volume 44
Issue 2
Start page 261
End page 283
Total pages 23
Subject 1104 Complementary and Alternative Medicine
1105 Dentistry
2303 Ecology
1910 Oceanography
1900 Earth and Planetary Sciences
2300 Environmental Science
Abstract In many coastal regions (e.g. parts of the North Sea, northern Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea, Great Barrier Reef lagoon, wider Caribbean, coastal areas of the USA) there is large-scale, and in some cases chronic, eutrophication. In some regions, the link between eutrophication and the destruction of an ecosystem is obvious, with excessive algal growth and water-column anoxia. In other cases, particularly in more fragile ecosystems such as coral-reef and seagrass areas, the links are not so obvious, yet the impacts of eutrophication in such regions can be devastating. Eutrophication can have more insidious effects such as contributing directly to the mortality of fish, marine mammals and sea birds and indirectly to disease or death in humans owing to the accumulation of biotoxins in seafoods. Increased development and changes in land-use patterns in the coastal zone have increased the loading of diffuse or non-point nutrients. In areas subject to runoff and soil erosion, most of the nutrient load is transported in particulate form. In such cases, the loads of nutrients discharged from cropping lands are typically an order of magnitude greater than those discharged from pristine forested areas. Nutrient export from pasture lands, whether these are fertilized or not, is also significantly greater than that from pristine areas, and in many cases the total loads from such areas are far higher than those from intensively farmed areas. A reduction in nutrient discharges to coastal waters will require careful land-use planning. The importance of the particulate fraction in the nutrient load necessitates effective control of soil erosion. The hydrological and nutrient linkage between terrestrial and marine ecosystems must be emphasized. Collective management of hinterland and coastal-zone resources could initiate remediation of a serious and growing problem.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Scopus Import
 
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