Sea shell diversity and rapidly evolving secretomes: insights into the evolution of biomineralization

Kocot, Kevin M., Aguilera, Felipe, McDougall, Carmel, Jackson, Daniel J. and Degnan, Bernard M. (2016) Sea shell diversity and rapidly evolving secretomes: insights into the evolution of biomineralization. Frontiers in Zoology, 13 23: . doi:10.1186/s12983-016-0155-z

Author Kocot, Kevin M.
Aguilera, Felipe
McDougall, Carmel
Jackson, Daniel J.
Degnan, Bernard M.
Title Sea shell diversity and rapidly evolving secretomes: insights into the evolution of biomineralization
Journal name Frontiers in Zoology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1742-9994
Publication date 2016-06-07
Year available 2016
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1186/s12983-016-0155-z
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 13
Issue 23
Total pages 10
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Abstract An external skeleton is an essential part of the body plan of many animals and is thought to be one of the key factors that enabled the great expansion in animal diversity and disparity during the Cambrian explosion. Molluscs are considered ideal to study the evolution of biomineralization because of their diversity of highly complex, robust and patterned shells. The molluscan shell forms externally at the interface of animal and environment, and involves controlled deposition of calcium carbonate within a framework of macromolecules that are secreted from the dorsal mantle epithelium. Despite its deep conservation within Mollusca, the mantle is capable of producing an incredible diversity of shell patterns, and macro- and micro-architectures. Here we review recent developments within the field of molluscan biomineralization, focusing on the genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins. The so-called mantle secretome appears to regulate shell deposition and patterning and in some cases becomes part of the shell matrix. Recent transcriptomic and proteomic studies have revealed marked differences in the mantle secretomes of even closely-related molluscs; these typically exceed expected differences based on characteristics of the external shell. All mantle secretomes surveyed to date include novel genes encoding lineage-restricted proteins and unique combinations of co-opted ancient genes. A surprisingly large proportion of both ancient and novel secreted proteins containing simple repetitive motifs or domains that are often modular in construction. These repetitive low complexity domains (RLCDs) appear to further promote the evolvability of the mantle secretome, resulting in domain shuffling, expansion and loss. RLCD families further evolve via slippage and other mechanisms associated with repetitive sequences. As analogous types of secreted proteins are expressed in biomineralizing tissues in other animals, insights into the evolution of the genes underlying molluscan shell formation may be applied more broadly to understanding the evolution of metazoan biomineralization.
Keyword Biomineralization
Lineage-specific novelties
Repetitive low complexity domain
Shell matrix proteins
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
School of Biological Sciences Publications
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