Spatial variations in the consumption of illicit stimulant drugs across Australia: a nationwide application of wastewater-based epidemiology

Lai, Foon Yin, O'Brien, Jake, Bruno, Raimondo, Hall, Wayne, Prichard, Jeremy, Kirkbride, Paul, Gartner, Coral, Thai, Phong, Carter, Steve, Burns, Lucy and Mueller, Jochen (2016) Spatial variations in the consumption of illicit stimulant drugs across Australia: a nationwide application of wastewater-based epidemiology. Science of The Total Environment, . doi:doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.207


Author Lai, Foon Yin
O'Brien, Jake
Bruno, Raimondo
Hall, Wayne
Prichard, Jeremy
Kirkbride, Paul
Gartner, Coral
Thai, Phong
Carter, Steve
Burns, Lucy
Mueller, Jochen
Title Spatial variations in the consumption of illicit stimulant drugs across Australia: a nationwide application of wastewater-based epidemiology
Journal name Science of The Total Environment   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0048-9697
1879-1026
Publication date 2016
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.207
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Total pages 9
Place of publication Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Abstract Obtaining representative information on illicit drug use and patterns across a country remains difficult using surveys because of low response rates and response biases. A range of studies have used wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as a complementary approach to monitor community-wide illicit drug use. In Australia, no large-scale WBE studies have been conducted to date to reveal illicit drug use profiles in a national context. In this study, we performed the first Australia-wide WBE monitoring to examine spatial patterns in the use of three illicit stimulants (cocaine, as its human metabolite benzoylecgonine; methamphetamine; and 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)). A total of 112 daily composite wastewater samples were collected from 14 wastewater treatment plants across four states and two territories. These covered approximately 40% of the Australian population. We identified and quantified illicit drug residues using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. There were distinctive spatial patterns of illicit stimulant use in Australia. Multivariate analyses showed that consumption of cocaine and MDMA was higher in the large cities than in rural areas. Also, cocaine consumption differed significantly between different jurisdictions. Methamphetamine consumption was more similar between urban and rural locations. Only a few cities had elevated levels of use. Extrapolation of the WBE estimates suggested that the annual consumption was 3 tonnes for cocaine and 9 tonnes combined for methamphetamine and MDMA, which outweighed the annual seizure amount by 25 times and 45 times, respectively. These ratios imply the difficulty of detecting the trafficking of these stimulants in Australia, possibly more so for methamphetamine than cocaine. The obtained spatial pattern of use was compared with that in the most recent national household survey. Together both WBE and survey methods provide a more comprehensive evaluation of drug use that can assist governments in developing policies to reduce drug use and harm in the communities.
Keyword Cocaine
Methamphetamine
MDMA
Wastewater analysis
Drug residues
LC–MS/MS
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: UQ Centre for Clinical Research Publications
HERDC Pre-Audit
National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology Publications
 
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Created: Wed, 15 Jun 2016, 11:23:21 EST by Coral Gartner on behalf of School of Public Health