Perspectives on an integrated model of job performance: Bringing the pieces together
For almost two decades, performance research has focussed on understanding and predicting job performance (e.g., Borman, Hanson, & Hedge, 1997; Borman & Motowidlo, 1993; Campbell, 1990a; Murphy, 1990). However, such efforts have failed to clearly define job performance or consistently establish links between predictor and criterion constructs. There are a couple of reasons for this lack of understanding. First, is that, until only recently, selection research has directed more attention to predictors of performance than it has to performance construct itself (Campbell, 1990a; Campbell, Gasser, & Oswald, 1996). Without a theory of performance that systematically directs attention towards latent structure, predictor-criterion relationships cannot be fully understood. Second, is due to the changing nature of work. Changes that have impacted upon the conceptualisations of job performance include technological change (Hesketh & Neal, 1999), increased use of work team designs (Peters, 1988), and the use of new organisational forms (e.g., flatter structure, and project focus) (Offermann & Gowing, 1993). As the nature of work changes, so are the approaches to job performance definitions (Cascio, 1995; Ilgen & Hollenbeck, 1991); but new emerging performance constructs have not been integrated into an overall model of job performance. For these reasons, this paper aims to provide perspectives on an integrated model of job performance. To accomplish this aim, this paper will review some models that have been proposed to explicate the job performance domain, and discuss some of the different antecedents that contribute to performance behaviours. It is argued that by defining and identifying a consolidated content structure of job performance, we might be able to better interpret, predict or control some facets of human work performance. .............................................