Frailty measurement in research and clinical practice: a review

Dent, Elsa, Kowal, Paul and Hoogendijk, Emiel O. (2016) Frailty measurement in research and clinical practice: a review. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 31 3-10. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2016.03.007


Author Dent, Elsa
Kowal, Paul
Hoogendijk, Emiel O.
Title Frailty measurement in research and clinical practice: a review
Journal name European Journal of Internal Medicine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1879-0828
0953-6205
Publication date 2016-06
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.ejim.2016.03.007
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 31
Start page 3
End page 10
Total pages 8
Place of publication Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Abstract One of the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in older people is frailty. Frailty occurs when multiple physiological systems decline, to the extent that an individual's cellular repair mechanisms cannot maintain system homeostasis. This review gives an overview of the definitions and measurement of frailty in research and clinical practice, including: Fried's frailty phenotype; Rockwood and Mitnitski's Frailty Index (FI); the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) Index; Edmonton Frailty Scale (EFS); the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illness and Loss of weight (FRAIL) Index; Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS); the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI); Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI); PRISMA-7; Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), Sherbrooke Postal Questionnaire (SPQ); the Gérontopôle Frailty Screening Tool (GFST) and the Kihon Checklist (KCL), among others. We summarise the main strengths and limitations of existing frailty measurements, and examine how well these measurements operationalise frailty according to Clegg's guidelines for frailty classification — that is: their accuracy in identifying frailty; their basis on biological causative theory; and their ability to reliably predict patient outcomes and response to potential therapies.
Keyword Frail elderly
Geriatric assessment/methods
Aged, 80 and over
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

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Sub-type: Article (original research)
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