In recent years much ink has been spilled debating the role, nature, and legitimacy of island archaeology as a subdiscipline within archaeology. No matter how islands and their archaeology are viewed, however, there can be no doubt that zooarchaeological studies of islands have gained increasing prominence in our efforts to understand human life ways in these settings. Here we discuss current trends in island zooarchaeology and examine some of the diverse research agendas, novel developments, and approaches pursued in the archaeological analysis of insular faunas. These are considered with reference to the topically and geographically diverse research contributions comprising this special issue. We suggest that cross-regional collaborations such as this special issue are fundamental to advancing research and investigative goals of island- and coastal-based zooarchaeology.