Variability of a "force signature" during windmill softball pitching and relationship between discrete force variables and pitch velocity

Nimphius, Sophia, McGuigan, Michael R., Suchomel, Timothy J. and Newton, Robert U. (2016) Variability of a "force signature" during windmill softball pitching and relationship between discrete force variables and pitch velocity. Human Movement Science, 47 151-158. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2016.03.005


Author Nimphius, Sophia
McGuigan, Michael R.
Suchomel, Timothy J.
Newton, Robert U.
Title Variability of a "force signature" during windmill softball pitching and relationship between discrete force variables and pitch velocity
Journal name Human Movement Science   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1872-7646
0167-9457
Publication date 2016-06-01
Year available 2016
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.humov.2016.03.005
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 47
Start page 151
End page 158
Total pages 8
Place of publication Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier BV
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Formatted abstract
This study assessed reliability of discrete ground reaction force (GRF) variables over multiple pitching trials, investigated the relationships between discrete GRF variables and pitch velocity (PV) and assessed the variability of the "force signature" or continuous force-time curve during the pitching motion of windmill softball pitchers. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for all discrete variables was high (0.86-0.99) while the coefficient of variance (CV) was low (1.4-5.2%). Two discrete variables were significantly correlated to PV; second vertical peak force (r(5) = 0.81, p = 0.03) and time between peak forces (r(5) = -0.79; p = 0.03). High ICCs and low CVs support the reliability of discrete GRF and PV variables over multiple trials and significant correlations indicate there is a relationship between the ability to produce force and the timing of this force production with PV. The mean of all pitchers' curve-average standard deviation of their continuous force-time curves demonstrated low variability (CV = 4.4%) indicating a repeatable and identifiable "force signature" pattern during this motion. As such, the continuous force-time curve in addition to discrete GRF variables should be examined in future research as a potential method to monitor or explain changes in pitching performance.
Keyword Fastpitch
Kinetics
Monitoring
Performance
Pitching
Softball
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: UQ Centre for Clinical Research Publications
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