Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle

Hay, K. E., Barnes, T. S., Morton, J. M., Gravel, J. L., Commins, M. A., Horwood, P. F., Ambrose, R. C., Clements, A. C. A. and Mahony, T. J. (2016) Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 127 121-133. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.01.024


Author Hay, K. E.
Barnes, T. S.
Morton, J. M.
Gravel, J. L.
Commins, M. A.
Horwood, P. F.
Ambrose, R. C.
Clements, A. C. A.
Mahony, T. J.
Title Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle
Journal name Preventive Veterinary Medicine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0167-5877
1873-1716
Publication date 2016-05-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.01.024
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 127
Start page 121
End page 133
Total pages 13
Place of publication Amsterdam, Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated.

Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3.

For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6–0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35–60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3–1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4–2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights the importance of concurrent infections in the aetiology of the BRD complex. These findings indicate that, while efficacious vaccines could aid in the control of BRD, vaccination against one of these viruses would not have large effects on population BRD incidence but vaccination against multiple viruses would be expected to result in greater reductions in incidence. The findings also confirm the multifactorial nature of BRD development, and indicate that multifaceted approaches in addition to efficacious vaccines against viruses will be required for substantial reductions in BRD incidence.
Keyword Bovine respiratory disease
Seroepidemiology
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1
Bovine herpesvirus 1
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus
Bovine parainfluenza virus 3
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

 
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