Auranofin is a potent suppressor of osteosarcoma metastasis

Topkas, Eleni, Cai, Na, Cumming, Andrew, Hazar-Rethinam, Mehlika, Gannon, Orla Margaret, Burgess, Melinda, Saunders, Nicholas Andrew and Endo-Munoz, Liliana (2016) Auranofin is a potent suppressor of osteosarcoma metastasis. Oncotarget, 7 1: 831-844. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.5704

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Author Topkas, Eleni
Cai, Na
Cumming, Andrew
Hazar-Rethinam, Mehlika
Gannon, Orla Margaret
Burgess, Melinda
Saunders, Nicholas Andrew
Endo-Munoz, Liliana
Title Auranofin is a potent suppressor of osteosarcoma metastasis
Journal name Oncotarget   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1949-2553
Publication date 2016-01-05
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.5704
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
Volume 7
Issue 1
Start page 831
End page 844
Total pages 14
Place of publication Albany, NY, United States
Publisher Impact Journals
Collection year 2017
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) accounts for 56% of malignant bone cancers in children and adolescents. Patients with localized disease rarely develop metastasis; however, pulmonary metastasis occurs in approximately 50% of patients and leads to a 5-year survival rate of only 10–20%. Therefore, identifying the genes and pathways involved in metastasis, as new therapeutic targets, is crucial to improve long-term survival of OS patients. Novel markers that define metastatic OS were identified using comparative transcriptomic analyses of two highly metastatic (C1 and C6) and two poorly metastatic clonal variants (C4 and C5) isolated from the metastatic OS cell line, KHOS. Using this approach, we determined that the metastatic phenotype correlated with overexpression of thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Validation in patient biopsies confirmed TXNRD2 and VEGF targets were highly expressed in 29–42% of metastatic OS patient biopsies, with no detectable expression in non-malignant bone or samples from OS patients with localised disease. Auranofin (AF) was used to selectively target and inhibit thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). At low doses, AF was able to inhibit TrxR activity without a significant effect on cell viability whereas at higher doses, AF could induce ROS-dependent apoptosis. AF treatment, in vivo, significantly reduced the development of pulmonary metastasis and we provide evidence that this effect may be due to an AF-dependent increase in cellular ROS. Thus, TXNRD2 may represent a novel druggable target that could be deployed to reduce the development of fatal pulmonary metastases in patients with OS.
Keyword Auranofin
Thioredoxin reductase
Oxidative stress
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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UQ Diamantina Institute Publications
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