Sustainable crop production is necessary to ensure global food security and environmental safety. Conservation agriculture (CA) is gaining popularity around the globe due to its sustainable approaches such as permanent soil cover, minimal soil disturbance, planned crop rotations and integrated weed management. Weed control is the biggest challenge to CA adoption. Weed ecology and management is different in CA than in conventional agriculture. In CA, weeds expression, seed bank status, distribution, dispersal mechanisms, diversification, growing patterns and competition trends are complex and differ from conventional systems. It is due to reduced tillage of the soil and the flora that thrives in CA. Reduced tillage systems affect the efficacy of herbicides and mechanical weed control measures. So, it is an important task to find out the differences and to fabricate new management options. In this review, changing weed dynamics have been framed. A novel aspect of this review is the comprehensive account of sustainable weed management strategies in relation to CA. Modified tillage operations, improved cultural practices, bioherbicides, chemical herbicides, allelopathy, and crop nutrition have been identified as suitable weed management tools. None of these offers complete control but the integration of these tools in suitable combinations works efficiently. Weeds dominating CA and their responses to CA components are highlighted. For example, small seeded and perennial weeds are more abundant in CA. The role of herbicide resistance in weeds and herbicide tolerant (HT) crops in CA is also highlighted. Allelopathy and crop nutrition are discussed as modern weed management tools for CA. A detailed account of weed responses to fertilizer management options is also given. Integrated weed management compatible to cropping patterns and climatic conditions offers the best results in CA. Future efforts must be directed towards the optimization and integration of these weed management practices.