River response to an active fold-and-thrust belt in a convergent margin setting, North Island, New Zealand

Formento-Trigilio, ML, Burbank, DW, Nicol, A, Shulmeister, J and Rieser, U (2003) River response to an active fold-and-thrust belt in a convergent margin setting, North Island, New Zealand. Geomorphology, 49 1: 125-152. doi:10.1016/S0169-555X(02)00167-8


Author Formento-Trigilio, ML
Burbank, DW
Nicol, A
Shulmeister, J
Rieser, U
Title River response to an active fold-and-thrust belt in a convergent margin setting, North Island, New Zealand
Journal name Geomorphology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0169-555X
Publication date 2003-01-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/S0169-555X(02)00167-8
Volume 49
Issue 1
Start page 125
End page 152
Total pages 28
Language eng
Abstract High-resolution digital elevation data (TOPSAR 10-m grid) are used to reconstruct Late Quaternary growth histories of subtle folding in the Wairarapa fold-and-thrust belt, North Island, New Zealand. Outcrop data of deformed latest Miocene and younger strata are combined with observations of warped and faulted late Quaternary terrace surfaces to unravel the geomorphic and structural history of the Huangarua River valley. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of loess that accumulated on these strath terraces and paleosol stratigraphy allow temporal correlation among the terraces and with glacial climate cycles since the Last Interglaciation. These data indicate that five intervals of strath cutting occurred, at ∼ 125, 60-70, ∼ 30, ∼ 15, and <10 ka. Strath beveling is largely independent of local folding or regional base-level change. We hypothesize that straths are cut when an increase in sediment supply, during cool climatic periods, brings river sediment load and river transport capacity into balance. In the Wairarapa, strath-cutting events appear to occur near the end of cool climatic cycles. This study shows that the identification of subtle departures from regional topographic trends becomes practical when a high-resolution DEM is available. After subtraction of an average valley gradient from the digital topography, the residual topography on the terrace treads reveals cross-valley and longitudinal tilting. Although rates of folding are slow and the magnitude of deformation is commonly limited to less than a few tens of meters, these topographic anomalies define fold axes that coincide with subsurface structures. When combined with time control, these anomalies serve to define the patterns and rates of fold growth over the past 125 kyears.
Keyword Fold-and-thrust belt
Geomorphology
New Zealand
Strath terrace
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
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