Interest in supply chain management (SCM) has increased as organisations seek opportunities to improve performance. Monitoring plays a key role in enhancing supply-chain performance by highlighting opportunities for improvements. However, evidence on the use of performance measures in SCM is scant. This paper explains the role of performance measures in SCM, and the difficulties in their design and implementation. The paper discusses frameworks for the development of supply chain performance measures, and presents case studies of performance measurement in Australian supply chains.