Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomization Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium

Linneberg, Allan, Jacobsen, Rikke K., Skaaby, Tea, Taylor, Amy E., Fluharty, Meg E., Jeppesen, Jorgen L., Bjorngaard, Johan H., Asvold, Bjorn O., Gabrielsen, Maiken E., Campbell, Archie, Marioni, Riccardo E., Kumari, Meena, Marques-Vidal, Pedro, Kaakinen, Marika, Cavadino, Alana, Postmus, Iris, Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S., Wannamethee, S. Goya, Lahti, Jari, Raeikkoenen, Katri, Palotie, Aarno, Wong, Andrew, Dalgard, Christine, Ford, Ian, Ben-Shlomo, Yoav, Christiansen, Lene, Kyvik, Kirsten O., Kuh, Diana, Eriksson, Johan G., Whincup, Peter H., Mbarek, Hamdi, de Geus, Eco J. C., Vink, Jacqueline M., Boomsma, Dorret I., Smith, George Davey, Lawlor, Debbie A., Kisialiou, Aliaksei, McConnachie, Alex, Padmanabhan, Sandosh, Jukema, J. Wouter, Power, Chris, Hyppoenen, Elina, Preisig, Martin, Waeber, Gerard, Vollenweider, Peter, Korhonen, Tellervo, Laatikainen, Tiina, Salomaa, Veikko, Kaprio, Jaakko, Kivimaki, Mika, Smith, Blair H., Hayward, Caroline, Sorensen, Thorkild I. A., Thuesen, Betina H., Sattar, Naveed, Morris, Richard W., Romundstad, Pal R., Munafo, Marcus R., Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta and Husemoen, Lise Lotte N. (2015) Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomization Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, 8 6: 832-841. doi:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.115.001225

Author Linneberg, Allan
Jacobsen, Rikke K.
Skaaby, Tea
Taylor, Amy E.
Fluharty, Meg E.
Jeppesen, Jorgen L.
Bjorngaard, Johan H.
Asvold, Bjorn O.
Gabrielsen, Maiken E.
Campbell, Archie
Marioni, Riccardo E.
Kumari, Meena
Marques-Vidal, Pedro
Kaakinen, Marika
Cavadino, Alana
Postmus, Iris
Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.
Wannamethee, S. Goya
Lahti, Jari
Raeikkoenen, Katri
Palotie, Aarno
Wong, Andrew
Dalgard, Christine
Ford, Ian
Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
Christiansen, Lene
Kyvik, Kirsten O.
Kuh, Diana
Eriksson, Johan G.
Whincup, Peter H.
Mbarek, Hamdi
de Geus, Eco J. C.
Vink, Jacqueline M.
Boomsma, Dorret I.
Smith, George Davey
Lawlor, Debbie A.
Kisialiou, Aliaksei
McConnachie, Alex
Padmanabhan, Sandosh
Jukema, J. Wouter
Power, Chris
Hyppoenen, Elina
Preisig, Martin
Waeber, Gerard
Vollenweider, Peter
Korhonen, Tellervo
Laatikainen, Tiina
Salomaa, Veikko
Kaprio, Jaakko
Kivimaki, Mika
Smith, Blair H.
Hayward, Caroline
Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
Thuesen, Betina H.
Sattar, Naveed
Morris, Richard W.
Romundstad, Pal R.
Munafo, Marcus R.
Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.
Title Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomization Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium
Journal name Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1942-3268
Publication date 2015-12-01
Year available 2015
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.115.001225
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 8
Issue 6
Start page 832
End page 841
Total pages 10
Place of publication Philadelphia, PA, United States
Publisher Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
Collection year 2016
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background—Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood.

Methods and Results—
Data on 141 317 participants (62 666 never, 40 669 former, 37 982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were included in observational and Mendelian randomization meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the Mendelian randomization analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses among current smokers, 1 cigarette/day higher level of smoking heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 bpm; 95% confidence interval 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate and slightly higher diastolic blood pressure (0.05 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) and systolic blood pressure (0.08 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval 0.03; 0.13). However, in Mendelian randomization analyses among current smokers, although each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with higher resting heart rate (0.36 bpm/allele; 95% confidence interval 0.18; 0.54), there was no strong association with diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, or hypertension. This would suggest a 7 bpm higher heart rate in those who smoke 20 cigarettes/day.

Conclusions—This Mendelian randomization meta-analysis supports a causal association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate.
Keyword Blood pressure
Heart rate
Mendelian randomization
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Queensland Brain Institute Publications
Official 2016 Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 2 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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