A standardized nomenclature for craniofacial and facial anthropometry

Caple, Jodi and Stephan, Carl N. (2015) A standardized nomenclature for craniofacial and facial anthropometry. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 130 3: 1-17. doi:10.1007/s00414-015-1292-1

Author Caple, Jodi
Stephan, Carl N.
Title A standardized nomenclature for craniofacial and facial anthropometry
Journal name International Journal of Legal Medicine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1437-1596
Publication date 2015-12-11
Year available 2015
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s00414-015-1292-1
Open Access Status Not yet assessed
Volume 130
Issue 3
Start page 1
End page 17
Total pages 17
Place of publication Heidelberg, Germany
Publisher Springer
Collection year 2016
Language eng
Abstract Standardized terms and methods have long been recognized as crucial to reduce measurement error and increase reliability in anthropometry. The successful prior use of craniometric landmarks makes extrapolation of these landmarks to the soft tissue context, as analogs, intuitive for forensic craniofacial analyses and facial photogrammetry. However, this extrapolation has not, so far, been systematic. Instead, varied nomenclature and definitions exist for facial landmarks, and photographic analyses are complicated by the generalization of 3D craniometric landmarks to the 2D face space where analogy is subsequently often lost, complicating anatomical assessments. For example, landmarks requiring palpation of the skull or the examination of the 3D surface typology are impossible to legitimately position; similar applies to median landmarks not visible in lateral photographs. To redress these issues without disposing of the craniometric framework that underpins many facial landmarks, we provide an updated and transparent nomenclature for facial description. This nomenclature maintains the original craniometric intent (and base abbreviations) but provides clear distinction of ill-defined (quasi) landmarks in photographic contexts, as produced when anatomical points are subjectively inferred from shape-from-shading information alone.
Keyword Forensic science
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2016 Collection
School of Biomedical Sciences Publications
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