Underground fire can be regarded as one of major contributor to greenhouse effect due to massive release of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide as gaseous by-product of combustion. The occurrence can be found in underground coal mines, natural coal seam bed and peat area. Strategies have been studied and analysed to find the most effective method to extinguish underground fire in respective areas.
For underground coal mines, a strategy to suppress fire hazards has been developed by using water mist spray system. The application of water mist spray helps by providing an effective fire extinguisher and acting as a coal dust suppressor in underground coal mine. The fire extinguisher using water mist spray, promotes a lower fire suppression time. Besides that, water mist particles are able to capture coal dust particles suspended in air aided by surfactant wetting agents.
Natural underground coal fire occurred mainly in China. The effect of underground coal fire has been severe to the locals and authorities. Extinguishing methods have been introduced as strategies to minimise the effects of underground coal fire. The methods are stripping, grouting, oxygen displacement and land covering. The methods can be used individually or in combination between each other. The suitability of methods can be determined based on initial structural analysis on underground coal fire.
Peat is an initial form of coal hence has almost the same calorific properties with coal. Peat acts as a fuel in the fire triangle. A strategy has been developed to extinguish peat fire using three distinct methods; direct extinguishment, isolation and air support. The effectiveness of extinguishment is subject to the initial evaluation regarding the severity of peat fire.