Association between salt and hypertension in rural and urban populations of low to middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population based studies

Subasinghe, Asvini K., Arabshahi, Simin, Busingye, Doreen, Evans, Roger G., Walker, Karen Z., Riddell, Michaela A. and Thrift, Amanda G. (2016) Association between salt and hypertension in rural and urban populations of low to middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population based studies. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 25 2: 402-413. doi:10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.25


Author Subasinghe, Asvini K.
Arabshahi, Simin
Busingye, Doreen
Evans, Roger G.
Walker, Karen Z.
Riddell, Michaela A.
Thrift, Amanda G.
Title Association between salt and hypertension in rural and urban populations of low to middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population based studies
Journal name Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1440-6047
0964-7058
Publication date 2016
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.2.25
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 25
Issue 2
Start page 402
End page 413
Total pages 21
Place of publication Wellington, VIC, Australia
Publisher H E C Press
Collection year 2017
Formatted abstract
Background and Objectives: The prevalence of hypertension, the greatest contributor to mortality globally, is increasing in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs). In urban regions of LMICs, excessive salt intake is associated with increased risk of hypertension. We aimed to determine whether this is the case in rural regions as well.

Methods and Study Design: We performed a meta-analysis of studies in rural and urban areas of LMICs in which the association of salt and hypertension were assessed using multivariable models.

Results: We identified 18 studies with a total of 134,916 participants. The prevalence of high salt intake ranged from 21.3% to 89.5% in rural and urban populations. When salt was analysed as a continuous variable, a greater impact of salt on hypertension was found in urban (n=4) (pooled effect size (ES) 1.42, 95% CI 1.19, 1.69) than in rural populations (n=4) (pooled ES 1.07, 95% CI 1.04, 1.10, p for difference <0.001). In studies where salt was analysed continuously, a greater impact of salt on hypertension was observed in lean rural populations (BMI <23 kg/m^2) than in non-lean rural populations (BMI ≥23 kg/m^2, p for difference <0.001).

Conclusions: The prevalence of high salt intake is similar in rural and urban regions. Excessive salt intake has a greater impact on the prevalence of hypertension in urban than rural regions. BMI appears to modify the relationship between salt and hypertension in rural populations.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: HERDC Pre-Audit
School of Public Health Publications
 
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Created: Tue, 10 Nov 2015, 14:06:45 EST by Simin Arabshahi on behalf of School of Public Health