Watson, Charles and Ullmann, Jeremy (2015). The brain stem. In Arthur W. Toga (Ed.), Brain mapping: an encyclopedic reference (pp. 251-259) New York, NY, United States: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-397025-1.00219-0
New technologies have had a major impact on the mapping of the brain stem. Gene expression and inducible genetic fate mapping have revealed the presence of a segmental organization, which includes two midbrain segments, the isthmus, and 11 rhombomeres. The cerebellum has been shown to be an outgrowth of the isthmus and the first rhombomere. The new data argue that we should abandon the use of the term ‘pons’ as a regional descriptor and that we should use the term ‘rostral hindbrain’ instead. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has extended our ability to map changes in the brain stem over time.