Time, in various guises, is integral to the conceptual and methodological apparatus of demography but the significance of space has been less well articulated. I review the way each dimension has shaped our understanding of demographic processes, and explore the distinctive contribution to be derived from closer linkages between population science and spatial analysis. Methods and models are needed that link individual with aggregate analyses, bridge geographic scales, and couple space and time. These have the potential to enhance theory, inform policy, and address contemporary knowledge deficits, but they call for novel approaches to data collection and also have implications for demographic training. The case is illustrated with examples drawn from both the global and Australian contexts.