The mitochondrial genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pediculus schaeffi: insights into the process of mitochondrial genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of great apes

Herd, Kate E., Barker, Stephen C. and Shao, Renfu (2015) The mitochondrial genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pediculus schaeffi: insights into the process of mitochondrial genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of great apes. BMC Genomics, 16 661: 1-8. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1843-3


Author Herd, Kate E.
Barker, Stephen C.
Shao, Renfu
Title The mitochondrial genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pediculus schaeffi: insights into the process of mitochondrial genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of great apes
Formatted title
The mitochondrial genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pediculus schaeffi: insights into the process of mitochondrial genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of great apes
Journal name BMC Genomics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1471-2164
Publication date 2015-09-03
Year available 2015
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1186/s12864-015-1843-3
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 16
Issue 661
Start page 1
End page 8
Total pages 8
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central
Collection year 2016
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background
Blood-sucking lice in the genera Pediculus and Pthirus are obligate ectoparasites of great apes. Unlike most bilateral animals, which have 37 mitochondrial (mt) genes on a single circular chromosome, the sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mt genomes. The head louse, Pediculus capitis, and the body louse, Pe. humanus, have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. The pubic louse, Pthirus pubis, has its 34 mt genes known on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the sucking lice of great apes, we sequenced the mt genome of the chimpanzee louse, Pe. schaeffi, and compared it with the three human lice.

Results
We identified all of the 37 mt genes typical of bilateral animals in the chimpanzee louse; these genes are on 18 types of minichromosomes. Seventeen of the 18 minichromosomes of the chimpanzee louse have the same gene content and gene arrangement as their counterparts in the human head louse and the human body louse. However, five genes, cob, trnS 1 , trnN, trnE and trnM, which are on three minichromosomes in the human head louse and the human body louse, are together on one minichromosome in the chimpanzee louse.

Conclusions
Using the human pubic louse, Pt. pubis, as an outgroup for comparison, we infer that a single minichromosome has fragmented into three in the lineage leading to the human head louse and the human body louse since this lineage diverged from the chimpanzee louse ~6 million years ago. Our results provide insights into the process of mt genome fragmentation in the sucking lice in a relatively fine evolutionary scale.
Keyword Chimpanzee louse
Pediculus schaeffi
Mitochondrial genome
Minichromosomes
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2016 Collection
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
 
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