Extensive X-linked adaptive evolution in central chimpanzees

Hvilsom, Christina, Qian, Yu, Bataillon, Thomas, Li, Yingrui, Mailund, Thomas, Salle, Bettina, Carlsen, Frands, Li, Ruiqiang, Zheng, Hancheng, Jiang, Tao, Jiang, Hui, Jin, Xin, Munch, Kasper, Hobolth, Asger, Siegismund, Hans R., Wang, Jun and Schierup, Mikkel Heide (2012) Extensive X-linked adaptive evolution in central chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 6: 2054-2059. doi:10.1073/pnas.1106877109

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Author Hvilsom, Christina
Qian, Yu
Bataillon, Thomas
Li, Yingrui
Mailund, Thomas
Salle, Bettina
Carlsen, Frands
Li, Ruiqiang
Zheng, Hancheng
Jiang, Tao
Jiang, Hui
Jin, Xin
Munch, Kasper
Hobolth, Asger
Siegismund, Hans R.
Wang, Jun
Schierup, Mikkel Heide
Title Extensive X-linked adaptive evolution in central chimpanzees
Journal name Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0027-8424
Publication date 2012-02-07
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1073/pnas.1106877109
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
Volume 109
Issue 6
Start page 2054
End page 2059
Total pages 6
Place of publication Washington, DC United States
Publisher National Academy of Sciences
Language eng
Abstract Surveying genome-wide coding variation within and among species gives unprecedented power to study the genetics of adaptation, in particular the proportion of amino acid substitutions fixed by positive selection. Additionally, contrasting the autosomes and the X chromosome holds information on the dominance of beneficial (adaptive) and deleterious mutations. Here we capture and sequence the complete exomes of 12 chimpanzees and present the largest set of protein-coding polymorphism to date. We report extensive adaptive evolution specifically targeting the X chromosome of chimpanzees with as much as 30% of all amino acid replacements being adaptive. Adaptive evolution is barely detectable on the autosomes except for a few striking cases of recent selective sweeps associated with immunity gene clusters. We also find much stronger purifying selection than observed in humans, and in contrast to humans, we find that purifying selection is stronger on the X chromosome than on the autosomes in chimpanzees. We therefore conclude that most adaptive mutations are recessive. We also document dramatically reduced synonymous diversity in the chimpanzee X chromosome relative to autosomes and stronger purifying selection than for the human X chromosome. If similar processes were operating in the human–chimpanzee ancestor as in central chimpanzees today, our results therefore provide an explanation for the much-discussed reduction in the human–chimpanzee divergence at the X chromosome.
Keyword Distribution of fitness effects
Faster X
Pan troglodytes troglodytes
Site frequency spectrum
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Unknown

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: Institute for Molecular Bioscience - Publications
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 39 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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