Site-based population estimates of the threatened Glossy Black-Cockatoo (‘GBC’; Calyptorhynchus lathami) are often calculated based on age and sex details from transect counts. However, these estimates do not distinguish individual birds, which may result in over- or under-estimation of the population. Two methods were used to estimate GBC populations in Mugii Murum-ban State Conservation Area, New South Wales: (1) the traditional transect method, and (2) a photographic method, which used plumage patterns (primarily the yellow facial feathers of females) and other supporting features to discriminate between foraging GBC family units. The second method has been used previously on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. A catalogue with a matrix of discriminating features was established based on the photographic method; this resulted in a higher population estimate than the transect method in two seasons (winter and spring), as well as providing an annual population estimate, and information on breeding dynamics and local movement of individual family units between foraging habitat. Recommendations for the application of the photographic method are provided. The method provides benefits at both the local scale (with more accurate site population estimates and information on population dynamics) and, with widespread adoption and national cataloguing, valuable knowledge on regional movement patterns and distribution.