Ancient venom systems: A review on cnidaria toxins

Jouiaei, Mahdokht, Yanagihara, Angel A., Madio, Bruno, Nevalainen, Timo J., Alewood, Paul F. and Fry, Bryan G. (2015) Ancient venom systems: A review on cnidaria toxins. Toxins, 7 6: 2251-2271. doi:10.3390/toxins7062251


Author Jouiaei, Mahdokht
Yanagihara, Angel A.
Madio, Bruno
Nevalainen, Timo J.
Alewood, Paul F.
Fry, Bryan G.
Title Ancient venom systems: A review on cnidaria toxins
Journal name Toxins   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2072-6651
Publication date 2015-06-18
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.3390/toxins7062251
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 7
Issue 6
Start page 2251
End page 2271
Total pages 21
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publisher MDPIAG
Collection year 2016
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Cnidarians are the oldest extant lineage of venomous animals. Despite their simple anatomy, they are capable of subduing or repelling prey and predator species that are far more complex and recently evolved. Utilizing specialized penetrating nematocysts, cnidarians inject the nematocyst content or “venom” that initiates toxic and immunological reactions in the envenomated organism. These venoms contain enzymes, potent pore forming toxins, and neurotoxins. Enzymes include lipolytic and proteolytic proteins that catabolize prey tissues. Cnidarian pore forming toxins self-assemble to form robust
membrane pores that can cause cell death via osmotic lysis. Neurotoxins exhibit rapid ion channel specific activities. In addition, certain cnidarian venoms contain or induce the release of host vasodilatory biogenic amines such as serotonin, histamine, bunodosine and caissarone accelerating the pathogenic effects of other venom enzymes and porins. The cnidarian attacking/defending mechanism is fast and efficient, and massive envenomation of humans may result in death, in some cases within a few minutes to an hour after sting.  The complexity of venom components represents a unique therapeutic challenge and probably reflects the ancient evolutionary history of the cnidarian venom system. Thus, they are invaluable as a therapeutic target for sting treatment or as lead compounds for drug design.
Keyword Cnidarians
Enzymes
Human envenomation
Neurotoxins
Pore forming toxins
Vasodilatory biogenic amines
Venom
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2016 Collection
School of Biological Sciences Publications
Institute for Molecular Bioscience - Publications
 
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