The Effect of Surfactants on the Stability of Sodium Hypochlorite Preparations

Guastalli, Andrea R, Clarkson, Roger M and Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero (2015) The Effect of Surfactants on the Stability of Sodium Hypochlorite Preparations. Journal of Endodontics, 41 8: 1344-1348. doi:10.1016/j.joen.2015.03.009

Author Guastalli, Andrea R
Clarkson, Roger M
Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero
Title The Effect of Surfactants on the Stability of Sodium Hypochlorite Preparations
Journal name Journal of Endodontics   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0099-2399
Publication date 2015-08
Year available 2015
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.joen.2015.03.009
Open Access Status Not Open Access
Volume 41
Issue 8
Start page 1344
End page 1348
Total pages 5
Place of publication Philadelphia, United States
Publisher Elsevier
Collection year 2016
Language eng
Formatted abstract

The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of the presence of surfactants over time on free available chlorine (FAC), pH, viscosity, and surface tension of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) preparations.


Three preparations containing surfactant (Chlor-XTRA 6% [Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI], Hypocelle 4% Forte [Dentalife, Ringwood, Australia], and White King Lemon [Pental, Shepparton, Australia]) and 2 without, Vista 6% (Vista Dental Products) and Hypocelle 4% Forte plain (Dentalife), were tested. The solutions were stored in closed plastic bottles and protected from light at a constant 20°C for 213 days. FAC was measured using iodometric titration, whereas pH, surface tension, and viscosity were measured using a pH meter, pendant drop method, and rheometer, respectively. The influence of the type of solution and the presence of surfactant over time on FAC was compared with the aid of linear regression models. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the effect of passage of time and the type of solution on surface tension and the effect of the presence or absence of surfactant on the solutions. The Bonferroni test was used for multiple comparisons (post hoc) and to evaluate the effect of the presence of surfactant between solutions from the same manufacturer (α = 0.05).


Degradation of available chlorine was faster in the presence of surfactant when comparing solutions from the same manufacturer [Chlor-XTRA versus Vista (P < .001) and for Hypocelle 4% Forte versus Hypocelle 4% Forte plain (P = .024)]. There was a gradual decline in pH over time, but viscosity remained stable. The surface tension of all products decreased over time (P = .025, F).


The presence of surfactant hastened the degradation of FAC in all affected NaOCl solutions. The observed changes in pH and viscosity were minor, whereas their surface tension showed a significant decrease.
Keyword Sodium hypochlorite
Surface tension
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2016 Collection
School of Dentistry Publications
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