Reference intervals for plasma sulfate and urinary sulfate excretion in pregnancy

Dawson, Paul Anthony, Petersen, Scott, Rodwell, Robyn, Johnson, Phillip, Gibbons, Kristen, McWhinney, Avis, Bowling, Francis Gerard and McIntyre, Harold David (2015) Reference intervals for plasma sulfate and urinary sulfate excretion in pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15 1: 1-8. doi:10.1186/s12884-015-0526-z

Author Dawson, Paul Anthony
Petersen, Scott
Rodwell, Robyn
Johnson, Phillip
Gibbons, Kristen
McWhinney, Avis
Bowling, Francis Gerard
McIntyre, Harold David
Title Reference intervals for plasma sulfate and urinary sulfate excretion in pregnancy
Journal name BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1471-2393
Publication date 2015-04-17
Year available 2015
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1186/s12884-015-0526-z
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 15
Issue 1
Start page 1
End page 8
Total pages 8
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher BioMed Central
Collection year 2016
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Background: Sulfate is important for fetal growth and development. During pregnancy, the fetus relies on sulfate from the maternal circulation. We report reference intervals for maternal plasma sulfate levels and fractional excretion index (FEI) for sulfate in pregnancy, as well as sulfate levels in cord blood from term pregnancies.

Methods: Plasma and urine were collected from 103 pregnant women of 10-20 weeks gestation and 106 pregnant women of 30-37 weeks gestation. Venous cord plasma was collected from 80 healthy term babies. Sulfate levels were measured by ion chromatography. Plasma and urinary creatinine levels were used to calculate FEI sulfate in pregnant women. Analyses provide reference intervals, and explored the relationship between maternal sulfate data with several prenatal factors.

Results: Median maternal plasma sulfate levels were 452 μmol/L and 502 μmol/L at 10-20 and 30-37 weeks gestation, respectively, and inversely correlated with FEI sulfate median values of 0.15 and 0.11. Overall reference intervals were 305-710 and 335-701 μmol/L (2.5th; 97.5th percentile; for 10-20 and 30-37 weeks gestation, respectively) for maternal plasma sulfate, and 0.06-0.31 and 0.05-0.28 for maternal FEI sulfate. Term venous cord plasma sulfate median levels were significantly (p = 0.038) higher in female babies (375 μmol/L) when compared to male babies (342 μmol/L), with an overall reference interval of 175-603 μmol/L.

Conclusions: We provide the first reference intervals for maternal plasma sulfate levels and FEI sulfate, as well as cord plasma sulfate levels. These findings provide reference data for further studies of sulfate levels in both mother and child.
Keyword Cord blood
Human gestation
Maternal sulfate levels
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

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