Periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes

Javed, Fawad, Al-Askar, Mansour, Samaranayake, Lakshman P. and Al-Hezaimi, Khalid (2013) Periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 345 2: 94-98. doi:10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31824d5337


Author Javed, Fawad
Al-Askar, Mansour
Samaranayake, Lakshman P.
Al-Hezaimi, Khalid
Title Periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes
Journal name American Journal of the Medical Sciences   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0002-9629
1538-2990
Publication date 2013
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31824d5337
Open Access Status
Volume 345
Issue 2
Start page 94
End page 98
Total pages 5
Place of publication Philadelphia, PA United States
Publisher Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
Collection year 2014
Language eng
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prediabetes and habitual cigarette smoking are significant risk factors contributing to periodontal disease. The aim was to assess the clinical and radiological markers of periodontal disease in habitual cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with and without prediabetes. METHODS: Sixty-eight individuals with prediabetes (test group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) and 68 medically healthy individuals (control group; 34 smokers and 34 nonsmokers) were included. Sociodemographic information, duration of smoking habit and number of cigarettes smoked daily were recorded through a questionnaire. Fasting blood glucose levels and periodontal inflammatory conditions (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP] and probing pocket depth [PPD] of 4 to <6 mm and ≥6 mm) were recorded. In both groups, marginal bone loss (MBL) was measured on digital panoramic radiographs. RESULTS: Cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in the test group had significantly higher fasting blood glucose level when compared with cigarette smokers in the control group (P < 0.001). In the test group, there was no significant difference in PI, BOP, PPD (4 to <6 mm and ≥6 mm) and MBL among cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Cigarette smokers in the control group had significantly higher PI (P < 0.001), PPD (4 to <6 mm; P < 0.001), PPD ≥6 mm (P < 0.01) and MBL (P < 0.05) than nonsmokers. BOP was significantly reduced in smokers when compared with nonsmokers in the control group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smokers without prediabetes exhibit significantly severe periodontal disease than nonsmokers. In subjects with prediabetes, the severity of periodontal disease seems to be over shadowed by the hyperglycemic state, obscuring the effect of habitual smoking.
Keyword Impaired glucose tolerance
Inflammation
Periodontal disease
Prediabetes
Smoking
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Dentistry Publications
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 22 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 19 times in Scopus Article | Citations
Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Created: Tue, 31 Mar 2015, 11:57:13 EST by Margot Dallinger on behalf of School of Dentistry