The periaqueductal gray controls brainstem emotional motor systems including respiration

Holstege, Gert (2014). The periaqueductal gray controls brainstem emotional motor systems including respiration. In Gert Holstege, Caroline M. Beers and Hari H. Subramanian (Ed.), The central nervous system control of respiration (pp. 379-405) Almelo, The Netherlands: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-63274-6.00020-5

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Author Holstege, Gert
Title of chapter The periaqueductal gray controls brainstem emotional motor systems including respiration
Title of book The central nervous system control of respiration
Place of Publication Almelo, The Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier
Publication Year 2014
Sub-type Research book chapter (original research)
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-444-63274-6.00020-5
Open Access Status
Series Progress in Brain Research
ISBN 9780444632746
ISSN 0079-6123
Editor Gert Holstege
Caroline M. Beers
Hari H. Subramanian
Volume number 209
Chapter number 20
Start page 379
End page 405
Total pages 27
Total chapters 20
Collection year 2015
Language eng
Abstract/Summary Respiration is a motor system essential for the survival of the individual and of the species. Because of its vital significance, studies on respiration often assume that breathing takes place independent of other motor systems. However, motor systems generating vocalization, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, as well as parturition, ejaculation, and defecation encompass abdominal pressure control, which involves changes in the respiratory pattern. The mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) controls all these motor systems. It determines the level setting of the whole body by means of its very strong projections to the ventromedial medullary tegmentum, but it also controls the cell groups that generate vocalization, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, as well as respiration. For this control, the PAG maintains very strong connections with the nucleus retroambiguus, which enables it to control abdominal and intrathoracic pressure. In this same context, the PAG also runs the pelvic organs, bladder, uterus, prostate, seminal vesicles, and the distal colon and rectum via its projections to the pelvic organ stimulating center and the pelvic floor stimulating center. These cell groups, via long descending projections, have direct control of the parasympathetic motoneurons in the sacral cord as well as of the somatic motoneurons in the nucleus of Onuf, innervating the pelvic floor. Respiration, therefore, is not a motor system that functions by itself, but is strongly regulated by the same systems that also control the other motor output systems.
Keyword Emotional motor system
Periaqueductal gray
Pelvic organ stimulating center
Pelvic floor stimulating center
Q-Index Code B1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

 
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Created: Wed, 04 Mar 2015, 13:32:38 EST by Anthony Yeates on behalf of UQ Centre for Clinical Research