Introduction: In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the use of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) to treat medical conditions refractory to conventional treatment. The following article provides an overview of the clinical use and efficacy of BoNT in the treatment of various urologic and sexual conditions.
Areas covered: BoNT has been accepted and/or explored as novel treatment for various lower urinary tract and sexual dysfunctions such as overactive bladder/detrusor overactivity (DO), detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD), benign prostatic hyperplasia, interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome, chronic pelvic pain and more recently premature ejaculation. The following terms ‘botulinum toxin’, ‘BoNT’, ‘botulinum toxin A’, ‘Botox’, ‘Dysport’, ‘Xeomin’, ‘botulinum toxin B’, ‘Myobloc’, ‘OnabotulinumA’, ‘RimabotulinumA’, ‘IncobotulinumA’ and ‘AbobotulinumA’ were used to search several databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed, EMBASE, CINAHL and clinicaltrials.gov for inclusion in this review article. Only English language articles were considered and all studies were limited to BoNT therapy in urological conditions in the adult population.
Expert opinion: BoNT-A has received regulatory approval for use in neurogenic DO and overactive bladder, but its use remains unlicensed in other lower urinary tract conditions such as non-neurogenic lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder pain syndrome and DSD. Published literature shows that BoNT can be effective in carefully selected patient groups, has minimal adverse event profile and is generally well tolerated by many patients. However, many questions remain unanswered and larger scale multi-institutional studies are required to determine the key factors in BoNT treatment success.