The ecology, biogeography and systematics of the tribe Luciini (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae) are investigated and revised. Details of adult morphology and behaviour and aspects of the immature stages are discussed. Mechanisms of speciation and validity of subspecies are proposed.
The geographical distribution of all Luciini is examined and the relationships between climate, vegetation and symbionts are discussed.
A biogeographical analysis of the tribe indicated that well defined boundaries influenced the distribution of most species and species groups. The distribution of the genus Hypochrysops C. & R. Felder, occurring in Southeast Asia, the Moluccas, New Guinea, Bismarcks, Solomon Islands and Australia, provided data for definition of 20 geographical zones. Similarity coefficients and clustering analyses were performed on the distribution data which provided a basis for the hypothetical evolution and dispersal of Hypochrysops in Australia.
Two groups of genera are recognised in the taxonomic revision: Section 1, the Lucia section containing four genera; Lucia Swainson, Acrodipsas Sands, Paralucia Waterhouse and Turner and Pseudodipsas C. & R. Felder; Section 2, the Hypochrysops section containing three genera, Hypochrysops C. & R. Felder, Philiris Röber and Titea Eliot. Two genera, Waigeum Staudinger and Parachrysops Bethune-Baker are considered to be synonyms of Hypochrysops and Philiris respectively.
In Section 1, a new genus Acrodipsas is described for species previously referred to Pseudodipsas and two species-groups are recognised. Two new species of Acrodipsas, A. melania Sands and A. hirtipes Sands, and one new species of Pseudodipsas, P. aurea Sands are described. In Section 2, twenty species-groups of Hypochrysops and twenty-one species-groups of Philiris are recognised.
Four new species of Hypochrysops, H. castaneus sp.n, H. ferrugineus sp.n, H. geminatus sp.n and H. luteus sp.n and three new subspecies, H. hippuris nebulosis ssp.n, H. theon cretatus ssp.n and H. miskini parvulus ssp.n are described. Twenty-eight species and subspecies and two forms are considered to be synonyms as follows: Waigeum anadyomenon Röber, Iraota aurigena Fruhstorfer, Hypochrysops boisduvali Oberthür, H. carmen Grose-Smith, W. ceramicum Druce, H. chrysodesmus Grose-Smith, W. miraculum fm. depicta Fruhstorfer, H. emiliae D'Abrera, Miletus doleschallii eunice Fruhstorfer, H. gemma van Eecke, M. polycletus hylaithus Fruhstorfer, H. hypocletus Oberthür, M. polycletus linos Fruhstorfer, Hesperia livius Fabricius, M. apelles major Rothschild, Dendoryx meeki Rothschild, M. polycletus menyllus Fruhstorfer, M. modestus Röber, W. mioswara Bethune-Baker, M. polycletus oineus Fruhstorfer, H. pagenstecheri Ribbé, H. resplendens Bethune-Baker, W. thauma fm. roscia Fruhstorfer, M. eucletus sabirius Fruhstorfer, W. simplex Grose-Smith and Kirby, H. apelles singkepe D'Abrera, M. stotharti Rothschild, W. thauma Staudinger, W. utyi Bethune-Baker, and H. eucletus vulcanicus D'Abrera.
Eleven new species of Philiris, P. amethysta Sands, P. aquamarina Sands, P. biplaga Sands, P. cadmica Sands, P, caelestis Sands, P. maculata Sands, P. pagwi Sands, P. scintillata Sands, P. sibatanii Sands, P. siassi Sands and P. tapini Sands and one new subspecies P. nitens sappheira Sands are described. Six species and one subspecies are considered to be synonyms as follows: Philiris ariadne Wind and Clench, Holochila cyana Bethune-Baker, P. goliathensis Tite, Lycaena griseldis Staudinger, P. kamerungae Waterhouse, Candalides parvifascia Rothschild and P. nitens restricta Tite.