Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: the CARTA consortium

Taylor, Amy E., Fluharty, Meg E., Bjorngaard, Johan H., Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad, Skorpen, Frank, Marioni, Riccardo E., Campbell, Archie, Engmann, Jorgen, Mirza, Saira Saeed, Loukola, Anu, Laatikainen, Tiina, Partonen, Timo, Kaakinen, Marika, Ducci, Francesca, Cavadino, Alana, Husemoen, Lise Lotte N., Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh, Jacobsen, Rikke Kart, Skaaby, Tea, Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost, Mortensen, Erik Lykke, Minica, Camelia C., Vink, Jacqueline M., Willemsen, Gonneke, Marques-Vidal, Pedro, Dale, Caroline E., Amuzu, Antionette, Lennon, Lucy T., Lahti, Jari, Palotie, Aarno, Raikkonen, Katri, Wong, Andrew, Paternoster, Lavinia, Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee, Horwood, L. John, Murphy, Michael, Johnstone, Elaine C., Kennedy, Martin A., Pausova, Zdenka, Paus, Tomas, Ben-Shlomo, Yoav, Nohr, Ellen A., Kuh, Diana, Kivimaki, Mika, Eriksson, Johan G., Morris, Richard W., Casas, Juan P., Preisig, Martin, Boomsma, Dorret I., Linneberg, Allan, Power, Chris, Hypponen, Elina, Veijola, Juha, Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta, Korhonen, Tellervo, Tiemeier, Henning, Kumari, Meena, Porteous, David J., Hayward, Caroline, Romundstad, Pal R., Smith, George Davey and Munafo, Marcus R. (2014) Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: the CARTA consortium. BMJ Open, 4 10: 1-13. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006141

Author Taylor, Amy E.
Fluharty, Meg E.
Bjorngaard, Johan H.
Gabrielsen, Maiken Elvestad
Skorpen, Frank
Marioni, Riccardo E.
Campbell, Archie
Engmann, Jorgen
Mirza, Saira Saeed
Loukola, Anu
Laatikainen, Tiina
Partonen, Timo
Kaakinen, Marika
Ducci, Francesca
Cavadino, Alana
Husemoen, Lise Lotte N.
Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh
Jacobsen, Rikke Kart
Skaaby, Tea
Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost
Mortensen, Erik Lykke
Minica, Camelia C.
Vink, Jacqueline M.
Willemsen, Gonneke
Marques-Vidal, Pedro
Dale, Caroline E.
Amuzu, Antionette
Lennon, Lucy T.
Lahti, Jari
Palotie, Aarno
Raikkonen, Katri
Wong, Andrew
Paternoster, Lavinia
Wong, Angelita Pui-Yee
Horwood, L. John
Murphy, Michael
Johnstone, Elaine C.
Kennedy, Martin A.
Pausova, Zdenka
Paus, Tomas
Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
Nohr, Ellen A.
Kuh, Diana
Kivimaki, Mika
Eriksson, Johan G.
Morris, Richard W.
Casas, Juan P.
Preisig, Martin
Boomsma, Dorret I.
Linneberg, Allan
Power, Chris
Hypponen, Elina
Veijola, Juha
Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
Korhonen, Tellervo
Tiemeier, Henning
Kumari, Meena
Porteous, David J.
Hayward, Caroline
Romundstad, Pal R.
Smith, George Davey
Munafo, Marcus R.
Title Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: the CARTA consortium
Journal name BMJ Open   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 2044-6055
Publication date 2014-10-07
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006141
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 4
Issue 10
Start page 1
End page 13
Total pages 13
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
Collection year 2015
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Objectives To investigate whether associations of smoking with depression and anxiety are likely to be causal, using a Mendelian randomisation approach.

Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, and observational meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with depression, anxiety and psychological distress.

Participants Current, former and never smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 25 studies in the Consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA).

Primary outcome measures Binary definitions of depression, anxiety and psychological distress assessed by clinical interview, symptom scales or self-reported recall of clinician diagnosis.

Results The analytic sample included up to 58 176 never smokers, 37 428 former smokers and 32 028 current smokers (total N=127 632). In observational analyses, current smokers had 1.85 times greater odds of depression (95% CI 1.65 to 2.07), 1.71 times greater odds of anxiety (95% CI 1.54 to 1.90) and 1.69 times greater odds of psychological distress (95% CI 1.56 to 1.83) than never smokers. Former smokers also had greater odds of depression, anxiety and psychological distress than never smokers. There was evidence for positive associations of smoking heaviness with depression, anxiety and psychological distress (ORs per cigarette per day: 1.03 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.04), 1.03 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.04) and 1.02 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.03) respectively). In Mendelian randomisation analyses, there was no strong evidence that the minor allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with depression (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.05), anxiety (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.07) or psychological distress (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.06) in current smokers. Results were similar for former smokers.

Conclusions Findings from Mendelian randomisation analyses do not support a causal role of smoking heaviness in the development of depression and anxiety.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Queensland Brain Institute Publications
Official 2015 Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 9 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 10 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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