Neurosecretory Nuclei of the Hypothalamus and Preoptic Area

Watson, Charles and Qi, Yue (2012). Neurosecretory Nuclei of the Hypothalamus and Preoptic Area. In The Mouse Nervous System (pp. 520-527) London UK: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-369497-3.10018-4


Author Watson, Charles
Qi, Yue
Title of chapter Neurosecretory Nuclei of the Hypothalamus and Preoptic Area
Title of book The Mouse Nervous System
Place of Publication London UK
Publisher Elsevier
Publication Year 2012
Sub-type Research book chapter (original research)
DOI 10.1016/B978-0-12-369497-3.10018-4
Open Access Status
ISBN 9780123694973
Chapter number 18
Start page 520
End page 527
Total pages 8
Total chapters 33
Subjects 2800 Neuroscience
Abstract/Summary The hypothalamus contains two distinct neurosecretory systems: the magnocellular system and the parvicellular system. The magnocellular system manufactures oxytocin and vasopressin for release by the posterior pituitary, and the parvicellular system manufactures hormones which control the release of many anterior pituitary hormones, via the pituitary portal system. The cells which control the release of the pituitary gonadotrophic hormones are located in the preoptic area, just rostral to the hypothalamus. The large neurosecretory neurons that secrete oxytocin and vasopression, and the small cells which secrete releasing hormones are almost all located in the paraventricular (Pa) and supraoptic nuclei (SO) of the hypothalamus Pa and SO are prominent cell groups found in the rostral region of the hypothalamus. Oxytocin and vasopressin are carried in the axons of the supraoptic and paraventricular neurons to the posterior pituitary, for eventual release into the bloodstream to control a range of physiological functions. Pa and SO have a long evolutionary history among vertebrates, and are essential components of the biological survival systems that are centered in the hypothalamus. The small neurosecretory neurons of Pa send axons to the median eminence. These neurosecretory cells express a range of neuropeptides, including anterior pituitary releasing hormones, and others regulating appetite and autonomic functions. The magnocellular neurosecretory cells in Pa and SO synthesize oxytocin and vasopressin. The major groups of parvicellular neurosecretory neurons have a hypophysiotrophic function, in that they control the release of a number of anterior pituitary hormones.
Q-Index Code B1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status Non-UQ

Document type: Book Chapter
Collection: Queensland Brain Institute Publications
 
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Created: Mon, 27 Oct 2014, 15:43:59 EST by Sylvie Pichelin on behalf of Scholarly Communication and Digitisation Service