Concept of double salt fortification; a tool to curtail micronutrient deficiencies and improve human health status

Sultan, Saira, Anjum, Faqir Muhammad, Butt, Masood Sadiq, Huma, Nuzhat and Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul (2014) Concept of double salt fortification; a tool to curtail micronutrient deficiencies and improve human health status. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94 14: 2830-2838. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6634


Author Sultan, Saira
Anjum, Faqir Muhammad
Butt, Masood Sadiq
Huma, Nuzhat
Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul
Title Concept of double salt fortification; a tool to curtail micronutrient deficiencies and improve human health status
Journal name Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0022-5142
1097-0010
Publication date 2014-11
Year available 2014
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1002/jsfa.6634
Open Access Status
Volume 94
Issue 14
Start page 2830
End page 2838
Total pages 9
Place of publication Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Collection year 2015
Language eng
Abstract Fortification of food with micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals is one of the main strategies used to combat micronutrient deficiencies. Fortification in common salt is a fruitful strategy because of the daily consumption of 5-12 g salt per person globally. Therefore double fortification of salt with iodine and iron could be a reasonable approach to prevent both iodine and iron deficiencies. It is reckoned that about two billion people are iodine-deficient worldwide. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy may affect the health status of both mother and fetus and increase infant mortality. Deficiencies of both these micronutrients during childhood affect somatic growth and cognitive and neurological function. Thyroid metabolism is negatively affected by iron deficiency and reduced effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis in areas of endemic goiter. High prevalence of iron deficiency among children may be reduced by the application of effective iodized salt programs. However, ensuring the stability and bioavailability of both iron and iodine as double-fortified salt is difficult. Iodine present in iodide or iodate form in dual-fortified salt is oxidized to free iodine in the presence of ferrous ions and oxygen and consequently loses its characteristics. Moreover, ferrous iron is more bioavailable but is readily oxidized to the less bioavailable ferric form. However, both forms of iron may lead to discoloration of the final product, which can be reduced by providing a physical barrier around the iron. Salt encapsulation is one of the best tools to provide a physical barrier for undesirable reactions and interactions during storage. In this review the concept of dual salt fortification, the impact of fortification on curing various life-threatening maladies, latest assessments of mineral deficiencies and the choice of fortificants are discussed.
Keyword Double salt fortification
Mineral deficiency
Micronutrient assessment
Human health
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: School of Agriculture and Food Sciences
Official 2015 Collection
 
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