Trajectories and predictors of women's depression following the birth of an infant to 21 years: a longitudinal study

Kingsbury, Ann M., Hayatbakhsh, Reza, Mamun, Abdullah M., Clavarino, Alexandra M., Williams, Gail . and Najman, Jake M. (2014) Trajectories and predictors of women's depression following the birth of an infant to 21 years: a longitudinal study. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19 4: 877-888. doi:10.1007/s10995-014-1589-6

Author Kingsbury, Ann M.
Hayatbakhsh, Reza
Mamun, Abdullah M.
Clavarino, Alexandra M.
Williams, Gail .
Najman, Jake M.
Title Trajectories and predictors of women's depression following the birth of an infant to 21 years: a longitudinal study
Journal name Maternal and Child Health Journal   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1092-7875
Publication date 2014-08-01
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s10995-014-1589-6
Open Access Status
Volume 19
Issue 4
Start page 877
End page 888
Total pages 12
Place of publication New York, United States
Publisher Springer
Collection year 2015
Abstract Little is known about the long-term mental health of women following the birth of an infant. This study describes the 21 year trajectory of women's depression following the birth of an infant and identifies early predictors of post-birth maternal depression trajectories. The sample comprises 2,991 women from the Mater and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. Using the Delusions-Symptoms-States-Inventory, depression was measured at 6 months, 5, 14 and 21 years after the birth. These measures were clustered and in addition bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to test for significant association between the groups and a range of maternal socio-demographic, psychological and pregnancy-related factors. Two depression trajectories were produced, a no-low depression group (79.0 %) and a high-escalating depression group (21.0 %). The strongest predictors for a high-escalating depression group were conflict in the partner-relationship (p < 0.001), anxiety (p < 0.001) and stress (p < 0.001) in the antenatal period, having many pregnancy symptoms (p < 0.001), being younger (p < 0.001) and having poorer social networks (p < 0.001). To a lesser extent not completing high school (p < 0.05), being unsure about wanting the pregnancy (p < 0.05) and not wanting contact with the infant following the birth (p < 0.05) were also predictors for high-escalating depression trajectory. Our findings suggest a sub-sample of mothers experience persistent depressive symptoms over a 21 year period following the birth of their infant. Partner conflict, inadequate social supports and poor mental health during the pregnancy, rather than factors relating to the birth event, contribute to women's depressive symptoms in the long-term. Given the identification of early markers for persistent depression, there may be opportunities for intervention for at-risk pregnant women.
Keyword Depression
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes Published online 1 August 2014

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
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