Response styles and personality traits: a multilevel analysis

He, Jia, Bartram, Dave, Inceoglu, Ilke and van de Vijver, Fons J. R. (2014) Response styles and personality traits: a multilevel analysis. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45 7: 1028-1045. doi:10.1177/0022022114534773

Author He, Jia
Bartram, Dave
Inceoglu, Ilke
van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
Title Response styles and personality traits: a multilevel analysis
Journal name Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1552-5422
Publication date 2014-08
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1177/0022022114534773
Open Access Status
Volume 45
Issue 7
Start page 1028
End page 1045
Total pages 18
Place of publication Thousand Oaks, CA, United States
Publisher SAGE Publications
Collection year 2015
Language eng
Abstract In two studies, we examined the shared and unique meaning of acquiescent, extreme, midpoint, and socially desirable responding in association with the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32), a forced-choice format personality measure designed to be less affected by these response styles, compared with personality inventories with Likert-type scales. Country-level response style indexes were derived from six waves of the International Social Survey Programme and from a meta-analysis of a social desirability scale. In the country-level correlational analysis, the four response styles formed a general response style (GRS) factor which was positively associated with (a) dominance (vs. submission) in interpersonal relationships, (b) competitive (vs. modest and democratic) feelings and emotions, and (c) data rational thinking. In a multilevel analysis, age showed a positive and education a negative effect on the individual-level GRS. Negative effects of country-level socioeconomic development and individualism and positive effects of competitiveness and data rational thinking on the individual-level response style were found. We conclude that country-level response styles are systematically associated with country personality measured by the OPQ32, suggesting that they can be viewed as having substantive meaning (i.e., culturally influenced response amplification vs. moderation). Implications are discussed.
Keyword Response styles
Midpoint responding
Social desirability
Big Five personality
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
School of Psychology Publications
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