Conjunctival melanoma is a rare but important condition encountered in ophthalmology. This paper reviews conjunctival melanoma as a clinical entity, with particular emphasis on differential diagnosis, management and prognostic factors. Relevant references were located through a comprehensive search of articles published between 1980 and early 2001 on Medline, using both the WinSpirs and PubMed platforms. The references of these articles were then checked for further articles of relevance. The condition is uncommon and its presentation variable; therefore, relevant studies were found to suffer from small numbers of subjects. This may be the cause of the confusion that still surrounds the condition and its management.