Despite having a low occurrence rate, Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most prominent foodborne pathogens in Australia. The organism is responsible for severe outbreaks with high case fatality and substantial economic losses due to food recalls. In this study, we analyze the incidence trends of listeriosis in Australia during 2001-2010, discuss the relevance of food recalls, and investigate the pathogen's role in foodborne outbreaks. A significant epidemiological finding was a consistently high national age-specific rate recorded for individuals aged 60 years and over. Analysis of Australian Listeria outbreak and food recall data suggests deficiencies in food safety programs of food manufacturing businesses implicated in Listeria outbreaks and revealed that ready-to-eat foods are high-risk vehicles for transmitting listeriosis. Highlighted is Australia's highly efficient Listeria management and surveillance systems bolstered by the introduction of Listeria molecular subtyping in 2010 coupled with a nationally standardized questionnaire by the "Australian foodborne disease surveillance network (OzFoodNet)." The detection of clusters and therefore outbreaks was now possible, allowing cases to be linked across multiple jurisdictions and enabling timely public health action. Considering current changes in food production and consumption patterns, continuous monitoring and improvement of surveillance systems will provide ongoing public health benefits and be crucial to future development of food safety policy for Australia.