Improving diet and physical activity to reduce population prevalence of overweight and obesity: An overview of current evidence

Stephens, Samantha K., Cobiac, Linda J. and Veerman, J. Lennert (2014) Improving diet and physical activity to reduce population prevalence of overweight and obesity: An overview of current evidence. Preventive Medicine, 62 167-178. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.02.008


Author Stephens, Samantha K.
Cobiac, Linda J.
Veerman, J. Lennert
Title Improving diet and physical activity to reduce population prevalence of overweight and obesity: An overview of current evidence
Journal name Preventive Medicine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0091-7435
1096-0260
Publication date 2014-05-01
Year available 2014
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.02.008
Volume 62
Start page 167
End page 178
Total pages 12
Place of publication Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier BV
Collection year 2015
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Objective
The aim of this study is to provide an overview of interventions to reduce or prevent overweight or obesity and improve diet or physical activity.

Methods
A review of meta-analyses and/or systematic reviews of these interventions in any setting or age group were conducted. Narrative systematic reviews were included for intervention categories with limited meta-analyses available. Summary measures including weighted mean difference, standardised mean difference, and I-squared, were examined.

Results
A total of 60 meta-analyses and 23 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. Dietary interventions and multi-component interventions targeting overweight and obesity appeared to have the greatest effects, particularly in comparison with workplace or technology or internet-based interventions. Pharmaceutical and surgical interventions produced favourable results for specific population sub-groups (i.e. morbidly obese). Population-wide strategies such as policy interventions have not been widely analysed. The effectiveness of the interventions to assist in maintaining behaviour or weight change remains unclear.

Conclusions
Various individually targeted interventions were shown to reduce body weight, although effect sizes were typically modest, and the durability of effects has been questioned. New approaches to evaluating population-based interventions, such as taxes and regulation, are recommended. Future research modelling the long-term effects of interventions across the lifespan would also be beneficial.
Keyword Diet
Physical activity
Obesity
Interventions
Randomized Controlled Trials
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
School of Public Health Publications
 
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