Bioanalytical and chemical evaluation of disinfection by-products in swimming pool water

Yeh, Ruby Y. L., Farre, Maria Jose´, Stalter, Daniel, Tang, Janet Y. M., Molendijk, Jeffrey and Escher, Beate I. (2014) Bioanalytical and chemical evaluation of disinfection by-products in swimming pool water. Water Research, 59 172-184. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2014.04.002

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Author Yeh, Ruby Y. L.
Farre, Maria Jose´
Stalter, Daniel
Tang, Janet Y. M.
Molendijk, Jeffrey
Escher, Beate I.
Title Bioanalytical and chemical evaluation of disinfection by-products in swimming pool water
Journal name Water Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1879-2448
Publication date 2014-08-01
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.watres.2014.04.002
Open Access Status
Volume 59
Start page 172
End page 184
Total pages 13
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher I W A Publishing
Collection year 2015
Language eng
Subject 2312 Water Science and Technology
2311 Waste Management and Disposal
2310 Pollution
2302 Ecological Modelling
Abstract Pool water disinfection is vital to prevent microbial pathogens. However, potentially hazardous disinfection by-products (DBP) are formed from the reaction between disinfectants and organic/inorganic precursors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of DBPs in various swimming pool types in Brisbane, Australia, including outdoor, indoor and baby pools, and the dynamics after a complete water renewal. Chemical analysis of 36 regulated and commonly found DBPs and total adsorbable organic halogens as well as invitro bioassays targeting cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and genotoxicity were used to evaluate swimming pool water quality. Dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid dominated in the pool water samples with higher levels (up to 2600μg/L) than the health guideline values set by the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (100μg/L). Chlorinated DBPs occurred at higher concentrations compared to tap water, while brominated DBPs decreased gradually with increasing pool water age. Biological effects were expressed as chloroacetic acid equivalent concentrations and compared to predicted effects from chemical analysis and biological characterisation of haloacetic acids. The quantified haloacetic acids explained 35-118% of the absorbable organic halogens but less than 4% of the observed non-specific toxicity (cytotoxicity), and less than 1% of the observed oxidative stress response and genotoxicity. While the DBP concentrations in Australian pools found in this study are not likely to cause any adverse health effect, they are higher than in other countries and could be reduced by better hygiene of pool users, such as thorough showering prior to entering the pool and avoiding urination during swimming.
Keyword Cytotoxicity
Disinfection by-products
Haloacetic acids
Invitro bioassay
Oxidative stress
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

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