The herbal compound geniposide rescues formaldehyde-induced apoptosis in N2a neuroblastoma cells

Chen, JinYan, Sun, MengRu, Wang, XingHua, Lu, Jing, Wei, Yan, Tan, Yan, Liu, Ying, Gotz J., He, RongQiao and Hua, Qian (2014) The herbal compound geniposide rescues formaldehyde-induced apoptosis in N2a neuroblastoma cells. Science China Life Sciences, 57 4: 412-421. doi:10.1007/s11427-014-4643-0

Author Chen, JinYan
Sun, MengRu
Wang, XingHua
Lu, Jing
Wei, Yan
Tan, Yan
Liu, Ying
Gotz J.
He, RongQiao
Hua, Qian
Title The herbal compound geniposide rescues formaldehyde-induced apoptosis in N2a neuroblastoma cells
Journal name Science China Life Sciences   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1674-7305
Publication date 2014-04
Year available 2014
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s11427-014-4643-0
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 57
Issue 4
Start page 412
End page 421
Total pages 10
Place of publication Beijing, China
Publisher Zhongguo Kexue Zazhishe / Science in China Press
Collection year 2015
Language eng
Formatted abstract
The herbal medicine Tong Luo Jiu Nao (TLJN) contains geniposide (GP) and ginsenoside Rg1 at a molar ratio of 10:1. Rg1 is the major component of another herbal medicine, panax notoginseng saponin (PNS). TLJN has been shown to strengthen brain function in humans, and in animals it improves learning and memory. We have previously shown that TLJN reduces amyloidogenic processing in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) mouse models. Together this suggests TLJN may be a potential treatment for patients with dementia. Because chronic damage of the central nervous system by formaldehyde (FA) has been presented as a risk factor for age-associated cognitive dysfunction, in the present study we investigated the protective effect of both TLJN and GP in neuron-like cells exposed to FA. FA-exposed murine N2a neuroblastoma cells were incubated with TLJN, its main ingredient GP, as well as PNS, to measure cell viability and morphology, the rate of apoptosis and expression of genes encoding Akt, FOXO3, Bcl2 and p53. The CCK-8 assay, cytoskeletal staining and flow cytometry were used to test cell viability, morphology and apoptosis, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to monitor changes in gene expression, and HPLC to determine the rate of FA clearance. Treatment of N2a cells with 0.09 mmol L−1 FA for 24 h significantly reduced cell viability, changed cell morphology and promoted apoptosis. Both TLJN and GP conferred neuroprotection to FA-treated N2a cells, whereas PNS, which had to be used at lower concentrations because of its toxicity, did not. Our data demonstrate that TLJN can rescue neuronal damage caused by FA and that its main ingredient, GP, has a major role in this efficacy. This presents purified GP as a drug or lead compound for the treatment of AD.
Keyword Alzheimer's disease
Panax notoginseng saponin
Tong Luo Jiu Nao
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Queensland Brain Institute Publications
Official 2015 Collection
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 16 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 18 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Sun, 18 May 2014, 00:23:10 EST by System User on behalf of Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research