Blasting is the primary comminution process in most mining operations. This process involves the highly complex and dynamic interaction between two main components. The first is the detonating explosive and the second is the rock mass into which the explosive is loaded. The mechanical properties of the rock material (such as dynamic strength, tensile strength, dynamic modulus and fracture toughness) are important considerations in understanding the blasting process. However, it is the characteristics of the geological defects (joints, foliation planes, bedding planes) within the rock mass that ultimately determine how effectively a blast performs in terms of fragmentation, all else being equal. The defect characteristics include, but are not limited to, their orientation, spacing, and mechanical properties. During the blasting process, some of the geotechnical characteristics of the rock mass are substantially changed. From the blasting outcome point of view, the most notable and important is the change in fragment size distribution that the rock mass undergoes. The pre-blast in situ defect-bounded block size distribution is transformed into the post-blast muckpile fragment size distribution. Consequently, it is fundamental to our understanding of and ability to predict the blasting process that both the blastability of a rock mass and its transformation into the fragment size distribution can be appropriately quantified.