Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease

Vitetta, Luis, Briskey, David, Alford, Hollie, Hall, Sean and Coulson, Samantha (2014) Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease. Inflammopharmacology, 22 3: 135-154. doi:10.1007/s10787-014-0201-4


Author Vitetta, Luis
Briskey, David
Alford, Hollie
Hall, Sean
Coulson, Samantha
Title Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease
Journal name Inflammopharmacology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0925-4692
1568-5608
Publication date 2014-06-01
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1007/s10787-014-0201-4
Open Access Status
Volume 22
Issue 3
Start page 135
End page 154
Total pages 20
Place of publication Basel, Switzerland
Publisher Birkhaeuser Science
Collection year 2015
Language eng
Formatted abstract
The microbiome located in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) comprises the largest community (diverse and dense) of bacteria, and in conjunction with a conducive internal milieu, promotes the development of regulated pro- and anti-inflammatory signals within the GIT that promotes immunological and metabolic tolerance. In addition, host-microbial interactions govern GIT inflammation and provide cues for upholding metabolic regulation in both the host and microbes. Failure to regulate inflammatory responses can increase the risk of developing inflammatory conditions in the GIT. Here, we review clinical studies regarding the efficacy of probiotics/prebiotics and the role they may have in restoring host metabolic homeostasis by rescuing the inflammatory response. The clinical studies reviewed included functional constipation, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, infectious diarrhoea/gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and necrotizing enterocolitis. We have demonstrated that there was an overall reduction in risk when probiotics were administered over placebo in the majority of GIT inflammatory conditions. The effect size of a cumulative reduction in relative risk for the GIT conditions/diseases investigated was 0.65 (0.61–0.70) (𝓏 = 13.3); p < 0.0001 that is an average reduction in risk of 35 % in favour of probiotics. We also progress a hypothesis that the GIT comprises numerous micro-axes (e.g. mucus secretion, Th1/Th2 balance) that are in operational homeostasis; hence probiotics and prebiotics may have a significant pharmacobiotic regulatory role in maintaining host GIT homeostasis in disease states partially through reactive oxygen species signalling.
Keyword Microbiome
Clinical trials
Reactive oxygen species
Probiotics
Lactobacillus
Bifidobacteria
Prebiotics
Gastrointestinal tract
Inflammation
Internal environment
Nutrition
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collections: Official 2015 Collection
School of Medicine Publications
 
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 5 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
Scopus Citation Count Cited 9 times in Scopus Article | Citations
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Created: Fri, 21 Mar 2014, 21:34:41 EST by Dr Luis Vitetta on behalf of Medicine - Princess Alexandra Hospital