Fracture risk among older men: osteopenia and osteoporosis defined using cut-points derived from female versus male reference data

Pasco, J. A., Lane, S. E., Brennan, S. L., Timney, E. N., Bucki-Smith, G., Dobbins, A. G., Nicholson, G. C. and Kotowicz, M. A. (2014) Fracture risk among older men: osteopenia and osteoporosis defined using cut-points derived from female versus male reference data. Osteoporosis International, 25 3: 857-862. doi:10.1007/s00198-013-2561-9


Author Pasco, J. A.
Lane, S. E.
Brennan, S. L.
Timney, E. N.
Bucki-Smith, G.
Dobbins, A. G.
Nicholson, G. C.
Kotowicz, M. A.
Title Fracture risk among older men: osteopenia and osteoporosis defined using cut-points derived from female versus male reference data
Journal name Osteoporosis International   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0937-941X
1433-2965
Publication date 2014
Year available 2013
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1007/s00198-013-2561-9
Open Access Status
Volume 25
Issue 3
Start page 857
End page 862
Total pages 6
Place of publication London, United Kingdom
Publisher Springer
Collection year 2014
Language eng
Formatted abstract
Summary: We explored the effect of using male and female reference data in a male sample to categorise areal bone mineral density (BMD). Using male reference data, a large proportion of fractures arose from osteopenia, whereas using female reference data shifted the fracture burden into normal BMD.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to describe fracture risk associated with osteopenia and osteoporosis in older men, defined by areal BMD and using cut-points derived from male and female reference data.

Methods: As part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, we followed 619 men aged 60-93 years after BMD assessments (performed 2001-2006) until 2010, fracture, death or emigration. Post-baseline fractures were radiologically confirmed, and proportions of fractures in each BMD category were age-standardised to national profiles.

Results: Based on World Health Organization criteria, and using male reference data, 207 men had normal BMD at the femoral neck, 357 were osteopenic and 55 were osteoporotic. Using female reference data, corresponding numbers were 361, 227 and 31. During the study, 130 men died, 15 emigrated and 63 sustained at least one fracture. Using male reference data, most (86.5 %) of the fractures occurred in men without osteoporosis on BMD criteria (18.4 % normal BMD, 68.1 % osteopenia). The pattern differed when female reference data were used; while most fractures arose from men without osteoporosis (88.2 %), the burden shifted from those with osteopenia (34.8 %) to those with normal BMD (53.4 %).

Conclusions: Decreasing BMD categories defined increasing risk of fracture. Although men with osteoporotic BMD were at greatest risk, they made a relatively small contribution to the total burden of fractures. Using male reference data, two-thirds of the fractures arose from men with osteopenia. However, using female reference data, approximately half of the fractures arose from those with normal BMD. Using female reference data to define osteoporosis in men does not appear to be the optimal approach.
Keyword DXA
Epidemiology
Fracture risk assessment
General population studies
Osteoporosis
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
School of Medicine Publications
 
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