Anh V. Nguyen (2013). Froth flotation. In Jan Reedijk (Ed.), Reference module in chemistry, molecular science and chemical engineering (pp. 1-26) Amstedam, Netherlands: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-409547-2.04401-2
Flotation is a selective separation process by attaching hydrophobic particles to rising air bubbles to form a particle-rich froth on the suspension surface, which flows over the lip of the cell. Hydrophilic particles do not attach to the bubbles and settle to the bottom to be discharged. Flotation has been the workhorse of the mineral industry for more one hundred years and has been expanded into many other areas, including deinking of wastepaper for recycling, water treatment, and separation of plastics, crude oils, effluents, microorganisms and proteins. This chapter reviews the physical, chemical and engineering aspects of flotation, and the interactions between them.