Echidna venom gland transcriptome provides insights into the evolution of monotreme venom

Wong, Emily S. W., Nicol, Stewart, Warren, Wesley C. and Belov, Katherine (2013) Echidna venom gland transcriptome provides insights into the evolution of monotreme venom. PLoS One, 8 11: e79092.1-e79092.7. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079092

Author Wong, Emily S. W.
Nicol, Stewart
Warren, Wesley C.
Belov, Katherine
Title Echidna venom gland transcriptome provides insights into the evolution of monotreme venom
Journal name PLoS One   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1932-6203
Publication date 2013-11
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0079092
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 8
Issue 11
Start page e79092.1
End page e79092.7
Total pages 7
Place of publication San Francisco, CA, United States
Publisher Public Library of Science
Collection year 2014
Language eng
Abstract Monotremes (echidna and platypus) are egg-laying mammals. One of their most unique characteristic is that males have venom/crural glands that are seasonally active. Male platypuses produce venom during the breeding season, delivered via spurs, to aid in competition against other males. Echidnas are not able to erect their spurs, but a milky secretion is produced by the gland during the breeding season. The function and molecular composition of echidna venom is as yet unknown. Hence, we compared the deeply sequenced transcriptome of an in-season echidna crural gland to that of a platypus and searched for putative venom genes to provide clues into the function of echidna venom and the evolutionary history of monotreme venom. We found that the echidna venom gland transcriptome was markedly different from the platypus with no correlation between the top 50 most highly expressed genes. Four peptides found in the venom of the platypus were detected in the echidna transcriptome. However, these genes were not highly expressed in echidna, suggesting that they are the remnants of the evolutionary history of the ancestral venom gland. Gene ontology terms associated with the top 100 most highly expressed genes in echidna, showed functional terms associated with steroidal and fatty acid production, suggesting that echidna “venom” may play a role in scent communication during the breeding season. The loss of the ability to erect the spur and other unknown evolutionary forces acting in the echidna lineage resulted in the gradual decay of venom components and the evolution of a new role for the crural gland.
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Official 2014 Collection
Institute for Molecular Bioscience - Publications
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