Introduction and hypothesis The aim was to review the impact of pelvic organ prolapse surgery on sexual function. Methods Every 4 years and as part of the Fifth International Collaboration on Incontinence we reviewed the English-language scientific literature after searching PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library and Cochrane database of systematic reviews, published up to January 2012. Publications were classified as level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCT] systematic reviews), level 2 (poor quality RCT, prospective cohort studies), level 3 (case series or retrospective studies) and level 4 (case reports). The highest level of evidence was utilised by the committee to make evidence based recommendations based upon the Oxford grading system. Grade A recommendation usually depends on consistent level 1 evidence. Grade B recommendation usually depends on consistent level 2 and/or 3 studies, or “majority evidence” from RCTs. Grade C recommendation usually depends on level 4 studies or “majority evidence” from level 2/3 studies or Delphi process expert opinion. Grade D “no recommendation possible” would be used where the evidence is inadequate or conflicting and when expert opinion is delivered without formal analytical process, such as by Delphi. Results With regard to the anterior compartment, the use of mesh is associated with neither a worsening in sexual function nor an increase in de novo dyspareunia compared with traditional anterior colporrhaphy (grade B). There is insufficient information to provide evidence-based recommendations on sexual function after vaginal mesh in the posterior compartment or after new lightweight or absorbable meshes (grade D). Conclusion There is a paucity of data on the impact of prolapse surgery on sexual function. Sexual function and dyspareunia rates are similar after anterior polypropylene mesh and anterior colporrhaphy (grade B). We recommend using validated questionnaires measuring sexual function in women before and after prolapse surgery and reporting sexual activity and dyspareunia rates pre- and post-intervention in all patients.